Yes. The whole hand is a middle finger: I think this is a good way to describe it. The symbols etc in the North are much more subtle, but Northerners have, as a group, developed a more sophisticated way to hold onto their power. This is more difficult to underline and express in writing, because the concrete images are not quite as obvious (even though they still exist). Also, people rarely talk about the street and school names, which also exist in the North. I wonder what it’s like for a young African-American to walk into the school under a concrete banner that advertises, for example, “The Stonewall Jackson School.” This is a constant assault.
Thanks so much for your responses; I cannot know the experience thoroughly because I am not of African descent, but I do feel like these things are so obvious that everyone should see them and register them as not only ugly but purposeful: for the purpose of subordinating others.
Thanks for reading!